Research and Higher Education Policies for the Transformation of Societies

Perspectives from the Anglophone Caribbean

Book Cover: Research and Higher Education Policies for the Transformation of Societies

Research and Higher Education Policies for the Transformation of Societies: Perspectives from the Anglophone Caribbean is the keynote address at the UNESCO Forum on Higher Education, Research and Knowledge held in Trinidad and Tobago in July 2007. It essentially does the following:

  1. Contrasts the development of Higher Education in the Spanish Caribbean and North America with the Anglophone Caribbean highlighting the 300-year difference in its commencement in the latter. Notes the meagre provision for higher education by the British over the period 1830 and 1948 and locates the impetus for the modern development and diversification of higher education in the Anglophone Caribbean to adult suffrage and representative government beginning in 1948.
  2. Outlines three periods in the modern era: the founding of the single regional university, the University College of the West Indies, in 1948; the establishment of national universities starting with the University of Guyana in 1963; and private for profit universities starting with the St Georges University Medical School in Grenada in 1976.
  3. Traces the origin of the development of research capacity and knowledge generation in the Anglophone Caribbean to the creation of the St Vincent Botanical Gardens in 1765 and the Bath Botanical Gardens in Jamaica in 1779 and followed by the Imperial College of Agriculture in Trinidad and the Farm School in Jamaica in the first two decades of the 20th century.
  4. Adopts the imperatives driving Caribbean transformation presented by Barbados Prime Minister Owen Arthur in his address to the Conference on the Caribbean in the 21 Century Conference in June 2007 held in Washington DC.
  5. Discusses issues related to policies for the further development of research and higher education in the Anglophone Caribbean with respect to process and timeframe; demographic factors; regional cooperation; Caribbean integration; and the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME);
  6. These discussions include references to the findings and recommendation from the First Septennial Review of the University of Technology and notions such as the Anglophone Caribbean being both place and people; not being either North American or Latin American; and that current geopolitics is forcing the twelve independent Anglophone countries, Haiti and Surinam into a common space and imposing on them a shared destiny.
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Church, State and Secondary Education in Jamaica

1912-1943

Book Cover: Church, State and Secondary Education in Jamaica

First Published as Chapter 5 titled: Church, State and Secondary Education in Jamaica: 1912-1943. (1988). In Perspectives in the History of Caribbean Education. Editor Ruby Hope King, Faculty of Education University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, Pp 109-144.

Public Secondary Education in Jamaica was established between 1879 and 1911 with Trust Schools under the management of the Jamaica Schools Commission. Church, State and Secondary Education in Jamaica gives a description of the formative years and reports the findings and recommendations of the Piggott Report of 1911 which evaluated the formative years.

This chapter filled a gap in original research on Secondary Education in Jamaica between 1912 and 1943. Dr. Ruby King had done the pioneering study on the establishment of public secondary education in Jamaica in the period 1879 - 1911. This Chapter documents the developments in public secondary education between the Piggott evaluation of secondary education in Jamaica in 1911 and the Kandel Report of 1943.

The contents cover the new definition of secondary education enunciated in Law 34 of 1914, the Impact of World War 1 and the new framework for public secondary education of 1920. It also covers the changes in public secondary education which took place between 1912 and 1943 in governance; the inclusion of church schools in the public system; the grand-in-aid scheme; expansion of girls’ education; staffing of schools; qualifications of teachers; pension for teachers; unemployment of secondary school leavers in the 1930 and the social relations of secondary education.

Included also is a list of public secondary schools and their owners; the gender and location of public high schools; annual data on enrolment; annual income and per capita costs; the Cambridge Examination results of 1943 and the number of scholarships given to attend public high school and to attend universities in Britain in 1943. There is a brief discussion on the change in the ownership of private secondary schools over the period and a brief references to interschool sports.

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Education for All in the Caribbean in the 1990’s

Retrospect and Prospect. EFA in the Caribbean: Assessment 2000

Book Cover: Education for All in the Caribbean in the 1990's
Part of the UNESCO series:

Education for All in the Caribbean in the 1990s: Retrospect and Prospect. EFA in the Caribbean: Assessment 2000. (2000) Monograph Series 19 UNESCO. Kingston.

Foreword by Colin Power, Deputy Director of UNESCO

The World Conference on Education for All held in Jomtien, Thailand in March 1990 set six major goals for basic education that was to be achieved by the year 2000. The World Forum in Dakar, Senegal in 2000 received assessments of what has been achieved following Jomtien and set Education for All goals that should be achieved by 2015. The Monograph Series commissioned by UNESCO records the 2000 Assessment. Education for All in the Caribbean in the 1990s: Retrospect and Prospect examined what had been achieved in the Caribbean over the decade of the 1990s in the six target dimensions and, using these achievements as the base, projected what should be the priorities going forward for the Caribbean in the first decades of 21st century.

The Assessment showed that although different countries of the Caribbean had approached the EFA goals differently substantial progress had been made in achieving or surpassing these goals. Among the main conclusions were the following:

  1. The Caribbean had included secondary education as part of the basic education although secondary education was not part of the EFA goals.
  2. The English, Dutch, and the French-speaking Caribbean had all progressed in achieving EFA quantitative goals with respect to early childhood, primary and adult literacy education with the English and Dutch Caribbean making much greater progress that the more modest achievements of Haiti.
  3. With respect to quality, the Dutch and English Caribbean may have been close to the limit of what could reasonably be expected from existing levels of resources, technology, teacher quality, and school organization.

The Monograph identified ten priority areas for EFA in the Caribbean in the first decades of the 21st century. These were overcoming the limits of existing organization, human and financial resources and traditional technology; the status and conditions of service of teachers; enhancing data management capacities; enhancing learning environments and enriching learning experience; establishing common quantitative and quality standards; motivating parents and students in the current socioeconomic climate; delivering and measuring basic education provided to adults; harmonizing and standardizing basic education across the Caribbean; setting targets and timeframes for achieving universal secondary; and strengthening the coordination of the EFA movement in the sub-region.

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