Education/Training in the New Workplace

Some Introductory Remarks

Book Cover: Education/Training in the New Workplace

In Human Resource Development and Workplace Governance in the Caribbean. Edited by Noel Cowell and Clement Branche. 2002. Ian Randle Publishers: Kingston Pp 37-43

This Chapter poses some basic questions about education, training and the new workplace.

These questions are:

  • Is the workplace the main aim of education and training?
  • Should education and training occur only prior to the workplace?
  • Is the new workplace axiomatic and education and training the problematic?
  • Where is the new workplace?
  • Are not jobs, work and virtual reality not more problematic than education and training?
  • Are the old distinctions between academic education and vocational training still useful?
  • Will the institutional framework for delivering education and training not change substantially over the next decades?
  • How should education and training be redesigned to give Caribbean people maximum opportunity to benefit from high-wage work that is and will be generated?
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Caribbean Regionalism, Education and Marginality

Book Cover: Caribbean Regionalism, Education and Marginality

In, The Challenge of Scale: Educational Development in the Small States of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Editors Kazim Bacchus and Colin Brock. 1987. Commonwealth Secretariat: London. Pp 127-139

Small size, isolation, and dependence have been themes that have been employed in discussing educational development in small states of the Commonwealth. This chapter argues that these themes are defining manifestations of the more basic condition of marginality. As such the chapter discusses the general notion of marginality and considers its implications in education in the Caribbean over the previous 40 years. It critically analyzes the quantitative increase in educational provision in the region which basically makes larger the educational systems that were inherited but leaves many of its qualitative features in place. Important region-wide projects and well as the University of the West Indies and the Caribbean Examination Council have demonstrated the value of regional cooperation. The chapter concludes with the notion that the Caribbean was at the ‘cross-roads’ with education needing to be separated from partisan and insular politics and embrace regional cooperation as an imperative.

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Out of School Youth

A Review of Jamaican Studies.

Book Cover: Out of School Youth

This Chapter reviews 26 empirical studies, done between 1980 and 2004, focused on Out of School Youths in Jamaica. The areas covered by these studies were:

Determinants of Schooling in Jamaica and Dropout

Formal and Non-formal education programs for out of school youths

Drug Usage and Abuse

Youths and the Labor Market

Adolescent Sexuality and Fertility

Street Children and programs and projects addressing some of their needs

The author makes comments on each set of studies but takes a particular interest of the findings of studies done in vocational training as well as findings on gender patterns which are not consistent with conventional patterns and seem to operate in reverse at the top and bottom of the social hierarchy of Jamaican society. Miller claims that the gender patterns found are consistent with the analysis of Jamaican society from the perspective of the Theory of Place.

(1999) In Caribbean Adolescents and Youth: Contemporary Issues in Personality Development and Behaviour. Editor Arthur G. Richardson. Caribbean Diaspora Press Inc. Brooklyn, New York. Pp 189-229

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Access to Tertiary Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean in the 1990s

Book Cover: Access to Tertiary Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean in the 1990s

Access to Tertiary Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean in the 1990s: In, Higher Education in the Caribbean: Past, Present, and Future Direction: 2000. Editor, Glenford Howe. University of the West Indies Press. Kingston. Pages 117-141.

Access to Tertiary Education in the Commonwealth Caribbean in the 1990s essentially documented the status of tertiary education as it existed in the Commonwealth Caribbean following the CARICOM Prime Minister’s Conference in Montego Bay, Jamaica in 1997 which set goals for tertiary education in the sub-region that were to be achieved by 2015. As such it provides a broad baseline against which the development of tertiary education in the 21st century in the Commonwealth Caribbean can be assessed.

As background, the Chapter differentiates tertiary education from adult education; gives a brief outline of the history of schooling generally; compares the provision of tertiary education in the British West Indian colonies to those of the North American Colonies and with the provision of basic education; briefly describes the development of tertiary education in the Commonwealth Caribbean from the 1940s to the late 1990s in relation to types of tertiary institutions and in relation to the expansion of secondary education that took place beginning in the 1950s.

Using empirical data from studies and official reports, the Chapter discusses enrolment in tertiary education in the various countries of the sub-region and in the regional University of the West Indies. Some comparisons are made between levels of enrolment in tertiary education in the Commonwealth Caribbean and several Countries of Latin America.

Relying on official reports of visas granted by the United States and Canada to Commonwealth Caribbean nationals to study in tertiary institutions, the Chapter discusses access to tertiary education in those countries with policies favoring educated migrants. Comparisons are made with respect to numbers of students from different Commonwealth Caribbean countries as well as their level of success as measured by graduation.

The major portion of the Chapter is devoted to empirical data and discussion of issues related to equity and access to tertiary education in the Commonwealth Caribbean. The issues discussed are Cost and Affordability; Social Class; Race and Colour; Location and Residence and Gender.

 

 

 

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Male Marginalisation Revisited

Book Cover: Male Marginalisation Revisited

In, Gender in the 21st Century: Caribbean Perspectives, Visions, and Possibilities. Editors:  Barbara Bailey and Elsa Leo-Rhynie Editors. Ian Randle Publishers. Kingston. 2004. Pp 99-133.

The phenomenon of Male Marginalisation was first described by Miller as an aspect of gender in the Aubrey Phillips Memorial Lecture on April 30th, 1986. While some embraced the concept as an original contribution to the study of gender, others were highly critical claiming that it was a male chauvinistic attempt to divert attention from women’s issues. This latter view was refuted by the prediction that the phenomenon described would become more evident and widespread in the future thereby confirming its reality.  Seventeen years later, on the Tenth Anniversary of the Gender Studies Unit of the University of the West Indies, Mona; Miller was invited to revisit the phenomenon of Male Marginalisation. The approach adopted in the Chapter further detailed the historical and theoretical foundations of the conceptualization of Male Marginalization by the following. It:

  • Agreed with much of feminist scholarship that conventional sociological theorizing is universally and uniformly unisex
  • Critiqued theorizing of gender by Weber; radical feminists, white and black; post-modernists; structuralists; and essentialists for either conflating gender and patriarchy or for omitting patriarchy from their formulations
  • Defined patriarchy as a social system of domination/subordination involving genealogy, gender and generation, where genealogy defines the external borders of a kinship collective while gender and generation determines internal rank within the collective.
  • Defined gender as the sexual division of power.
  • Established that genealogy created a covenant of kinship which consisted of shared identity, group solidarity and reciprocal obligations.
  • Traced the brutality and cruelty inflicted on alien genealogies that fall outside of the covenant of kinship, especially on their men since women and children were more easily incorporated into lineages.
  • Defined marginality and centrality in society and showed that these were social facts of all societies.
  • Argued that inequality was the reality of human society but could not be justified on ethical and moral grounds. Further, while equality is ethical and moral it is utopian and not practical. Accordingly, human societies must contend with this inherent and fundamental contradiction
  • Argued that whatever criteria are used to justify inequality in one era can be successfully challenged subsequently, hence the criteria on which societies are structured are perennially renegotiated.
  • Argued that the asymmetries in power in society is resultant of renegotiations of the structure of society and that male marginalisation has been a consistent feature of societies ancient and modern.
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